Change Management -An Overview
A change is an event, action, or condition that affects the scope, value, or duration of a project or task. All change documents must be associated with a project or project/task combination. Change management is the process of creating, managing, resolving, implementing, and communicating changes. Change management encompasses both change requests and change order.
Change requests enable you to document potential changes to the scope of a project and to facilitate the approval process.
Change orders enable you to track and implement the impacts of changes to a project.
You can merge the impacts of multiple change requests into a single change order. Once approved, you can implement the impact of a change order.
Change requests and change orders are sometimes referred to collectively in Oracle Projects as change documents.
The change management process consists of the following stages:
Create change documents
When you identify a change for a project or task, you can record the change details using Oracle Project Management and assign ownership of the resulting change document. The owner creates and assigns actions in an effort to resolve the change document, and defines the change document impacts. You can also create a change document by copying an existing issue or change document.
Manage change documents
You can view change documents for one or more projects for which you are responsible for resolving. These lists provide information to help you determine which change documents need immediate attention. You can also update the progress being made to resolve change documents.
Resolve change documents
After change document impacts have been defined and all actions have been closed, the change document owner is required to submit it for approval.
If a resolution is required for a change document, you must enter it before you can submit the change document for approval.
Approve change documents
Approval of a change document indicates that the approver has reviewed the change document and agrees with the defined impacts and the resolution. By default, the approver for your change documents is the project manager, but you may define the approver differently during implementation.
If the approver rejects the change document resolution, the status is changed to Rejected and the change document must be reworked in order to be resubmitted it for approval. A change document with open actions cannot be submitted for approval.
Implement and close change documents
Once approved, you can include change requests in a change order. Once a change order has been approved, you can implement the financial impact in the approved budget for the project. You can also implement and track the supplier impact in purchase orders, and track the implementation details for workplan, contract, staffing, and other impacts.
After a change document is approved and implemented, you can close it. Change requests must be included in a change order before they can be closed. Once approved, you can implement the impacts of a change order and close the change order.
Change Document Participation
Both project team members and non–team members can participate in the resolution and implementation of a change document. These participants can have different levels of access to the change document and related actions based on both the status of the change document and the type of assigned actions. Possible participants include:
Creator: A change document creator is a project team member who creates the change document and designates the owner. Only the creator and users with proper project security access such as super users, users with project authority for an organization, and project managers have access to a change document while it is in Draft status.
Owner: A change document owner is a project team member who has been assigned the responsibility of overseeing the progress, resolution, implementation, and closure of a change document. This person creates and assigns actions to both team members and non–team members, as appropriate. In addition, users who have proper project security access can change the status and ownership of items. The owner of the change document can be changed only while the change document is in either Draft or Working status.
Assignee: An assignee is a person who has been assigned an action. The assignee can respond, close, or reassign the action.
Approver: An approver reviews and approves a change document. Project managers are the default change document approvers. If the person that submits the change document for approval is the project manager, the change document is automatically approved once it is submitted.
Creating Change Documents
Each change document is based on a predefined change request type or change order type. The change document type determines who can create a change document of that type and the general behavior of a change document such as how the change documents are numbered and if a resolution is required. Change document types are associated with project types. This association determines the list of change document types available for a given project.
Points to keep in mind when creating change documents:
If you are not ready for the project team to begin working on the change document and assigned action, then you must change the status to Draft before you save the change document for the first time. You cannot change the status of a working change document back to Draft once it has been saved.
If the change document status was originally set to Draft, change the status to Working when you are ready for the project team members and other action assignees to begin working on their actions and the resolution of the change document.
Each change document has a log tracking the interaction between team members and action assignees. All comments and responses to actions are recorded in this log and can be viewed through the Interaction History page.
Change Document Attributes
When you create a change document, the information you provide assists in its tracking and resolution. All change documents must be associated with a project. This section describes the key attributes of a change document. The change document attributes include:
Summary and Description
You can provide both a textual summary and a description of the change document. The summary appears on all predefined views of change document lists.
You must select a classification for each change document. This classification provides further categorization of the change document.
For example, you have defined classifications of Resource, Knowledge Gap, and Dependencies. You can create a personalized view of all the Resource change documents. The classification enables you to categorize your change documents into meaningful groups for identifying high problem areas.
You can select a value to indicate the level of priority of the change document.
You must select the reason for the change document.
For example, you may have reasons such as Enhancement Request, Error in Initial Scope, or Insufficient Materials. The reasons can assist you later in categorizing and analyzing the causes of your change documents for one or more projects.
Required by Date
You can specify a date by which the change document should be resolved and implemented. This attribute is used to calculate the value for Days Until Due, which indicates to team members the urgency of the change document by showing how much time is left to resolve and close a change document.
You must assign ownership either to yourself or another project team member. Ownership defaults to the person creating the change document.
Level of Effort
You can select a value to indicate the estimated level of effort required to resolve the change document.
When you create a change document, you must select a status of Draft or Working. Once the change document is saved in Working status, you cannot change it back to Draft.
Price and Currency
You can enter the estimated price of the change document resolution, if known, and specify the currency of the price.
You can associate the change document to a particular task on either the currently published workplan or financial structure.
If source information is enabled for the change document type, you can specify the originating source of the change document and its related information.
You can assign an initial action for the change document. If you want to create additional actions, you must create them from the Actions page.
System Number and Change Document Number
Each change document is assigned a system–generated number that is unique across all projects. In addition, each change document has a number to identify it within the project (see next page).
Defining Change Document Impacts
The types of impacts that are available for you to define for a specific change request or change order are based on the impacts that are enabled for the change document type.
You define workplan, staffing, contract, and other impacts by entering descriptive text. When you define a supplier impact, you can enter descriptive text, as well as an impact amount by purchase order. You can use the supplier impact amount information to manually update purchase orders at any time.
When you define financial impact for a change document, you can enter descriptive text, estimate amounts, and detail plan lines. Amounts can include quantities, cost amounts, and revenue amounts, as appropriate, based on the planning options defined in the approved budget plan type for a project.
Oracle Project Management uses the plan setup for the approved budget plan type for a project to determine whether you can enter cost impacts only, revenue impacts only, or both cost and revenue impacts.
Before you can enter financial impact amounts for a change document, a current working plan version must exist for the approved budget plan type for the project. In addition, once a financial impact has been defined for a change document, you must have at least one current working plan version for the approved budget plan type.
When the Baseline Funding Without Budget option is enabled for a project, Oracle Projects automatically creates an approved revenue budget when you create the project funding baseline. When defining the financial impact of a change order on a project with this option enabled, you must select the agreement name from which the project funding was created. If you want to increase the total amount for the agreement by the amount of the change order financial impact, select the Update Agreement Amount option on the Impact Details page.
Editing Planning Options for Financial Impact in Change Documents
Planning options control the level, currencies, time phase, and planning elements (tasks and resources), for which financial amounts can be planned. Oracle Projects defines default planning options for the financial impact of a change document based on the planning options for the current working plan version of the approved budget plan type. You can optionally edit the default planning options of a change document from the pages used to edit the cost and revenue amounts.
Creating and Assigning Actions to Change Documents
An action is an assigned question or unit of work related to the change document. The action consists of the request and related information, and all responses to the request. Actions enable project team members and other interested parties to collaborate on a change document, and can help in the resolution of the change document.
You can create actions for a change document that is in either Draft or Working status, and assign these actions to any person. These actions are visible to the assignees only when the change document is in working status. You can create two types of actions: Review or Update. A review action allows the assignee to review the change document and enter a response. An update action allows the assignee to update the change document for as long as the action is open. Only the change document owner or project manager can create update actions. Persons assigned to open review and update actions can create new review actions for other people.
When you define an action, you can specify a due date for the response in the Required by Date field. This date assists the change document owner in managing outstanding actions on the change document. You can also request sign off from the action assignee in order to confirm the action response. The change document owner can submit the change document for approval only after all the actions are closed.
Including and Viewing Change Documents
You can automatically implement the financial impact of an approved change order in a current working plan version that is designated as an approved cost budget or an approved revenue budget.
You can include the financial impact of a change document of any status in any plan version that is not designated as an approved cost budget or an approved revenue budget. You can include the financial impact of a change document in a plan version only once.
Manually Including the Impact of a Change Document
Oracle Projects cannot automatically include the financial impact of a change document in a plan version if any of the following conditions are true:
The planning level of the plan version is at a more detailed level than the planning level of the change document.
The time phase of the plan version and the change document differ, and the time phase of the plan version is not None.
The resource list of the plan version and the change document differ, and the resource list of the plan version is not None.
When the system cannot automatically include the financial impact of a change document in a plan version, the system will display the View Plan page for the change document. To manually include the financial impact of the change document, choose Printable Page on the View Plan page to print the document information and use the information to manually update the plan version.
If you manually update a plan version to include the financial impact of a change document, then use the Mark as Included option on the View Plan page. This prevents the change document from being included in a plan version more than once, and enables the change document to be displayed in the View Included Change Documents page for a plan version.
Viewing Included Change Documents
To view a list of change documents that are included in a plan version, navigate to the View Included Change Documents page.